Drawing

How your drawing is part of your process and how you could improve that creatively.

Drawing, how I love drawing, I draw because I am, mostly I draw in public places when I am relaxed. I suppose there is a bit of Degas in me, I like to draw people and I sketch most when I am in the pub or a restaurant and I am relaxed and people watching.

I keep my A6 sketchbook and pen with me at all times, and I am finding that the more I draw, the more it informs my visual memory. With my sketches as notes with the help of the lay figures I can construct a fairly convincing painting.

I use drawings to work out my ideas and compositions in larger sketchbooks but I am beginning to treat my compositional and tonal drawings as maps rather than blueprints and to paint around the feeling of the drawing rather than the actuality of it.

I photograph my drawings and overlay them digitally with compositional grids and triangles and golden sections and pyramids just so that I am sure that there is a structure beneath the surface of my paintings that will hold the whole edifice together and so that it can be there without drawing attention to itself. This probably comes from my day job where the foundations support an impossible building or the concrete frame work supports a pretty cladding.

The day job is probably another reason I do prepatory drawings. If I start a drawing I invariably finish it, whereas a painting can go on for a while longer. The prepatory drawing has the ability to retain the original idea for longer than it takes for the painting to be made or the subject to disintegrate. In a way I think this helps as rather than painting the actual subject, you a painting a solidified memory of the subject.

The Still life restaurant series that I painted was helpful in this regard in that the third in the series was three steps away from the original sketch, a long way from drawing and although I made a few drawings to get the feel of the new direction I went I feel that this was just to calm down a bit of unfamiliar territory before leaping in with the brush. The last painting is not very like it’s prepatory sketches and the inspiration for it came more from the previous paintings.

The only drawing, involved drawing that was involved in the in the third painting was to draw round a dish and a jar to get the circles. At the request of my tutor I have been drawing with a brush, this is giving my paintings a freer looser quality that I quite like and avoids the grin through of pencil lines.

Perhaps less drawing is the way to go forward, drawing and painting are of course two distinct activities while in historical times such as cave painting and Egyptian painting the two were closely allied they have moved farther apart since then. I need to make this separation clear in my own head especially when I dance at my easel, more dancing less drawing.

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Dear Cleo 19 01 02

Dearest Cleo

Well we are still waiting for your new baby brother or sister, it can’t be long now, instead of sitting here worrying I have been busy writing my reflections on part 1 of the course. It is perhaps a bit fitting that the first post of 2019 looks back over the second half of 2018.

Assignment Part 1

Reflections

Do you feel you have managed to delve beneath and beyond the surface, to get “under the skin” of painting and begin to understand its making and the material choices and conceptual considerations of the artists you looked at?

From my reading and visits to galleries I have a good understanding of how art was made in the pre-modern and Modern era from a technical point of view but I need to understand more about the non technical point of view, the why not the how, I think the collages I have been doing are beginning to help in this respect but I need to work on them more, I think, to bring out what is inside me.

In my study of pre-modernist art and modernist art, the material choices of the artist were predominantly affected by the technology available to them, at the time

Primarily this would refer to the types of pigment available to them which varied from ground up rocks and berries dissolved in water to chemical pigments available in collapsible metal tubes.

Although brushes have changed and become more sophisticated there are still brushes today that are basically the same as when the paint stopped being put on by hand and mouth blown in the caves.

Supports are slightly different, for a long time there were just walls, then came papyrus, paper and timber panels followed by canvas and canvas boards, all of which served to make paintings transportable, but there remained a desire to paint on walls like it gives the work a greater sense of permanence, and if you want to see it you have to go and visit it to see its Aura. (Benjamin)

The conceptual considerations of the artist were based around ceremony and religion up until the time of the Renaissance and it was only after the Reformation that this changed when artists worked on a commission basis for wealthy clients. It was not until the nineteenth century that artists conceptualised their own visions and held a stock of paintings for sale. This is not to say that earlier artists lacked conception, they still has to conceive the design, composition and colouring of their works but they worked within a greater conceptual idea whereas nineteenth century artists had to conceive works that would sell in order to keep body and soul together.

So much art has been lost over the centuries and only the best has been preserved, which was a colossal target for modern artists to continue. From the 19th century art became more conceptual and less craft based

Do your experimental pieces successfully reflect any of the inspirations or revelations that you encountered during your research?

Sienna Scraffito, Self Portrait on a man cave wall in Edmonton early twenty first century and the ST series of collages were all works done without the use of a brush which were all the result of inspirations I encountered during my research.

The revelations of the old master techniques inspired me to do Grisaille for La Giaconda and Lauren, both of which remain in progress, as you can see from my step by step painting of Lauren I have adapted the technique somewhat to fix the drawing earlier and speed up the drying times.

Seated figure just came into my head while I was reading about Cubism so I guess that was truly inspired.

What questions has the work you have done in Part 1 thrown up in terms of your own practice?

Why do I like The Rip Offs, is there the beginnings of something good about them?

How do Ochres #1, 2 and 3 connect with The Rip Offs?

When will I ever understand the assessment criteria?

Review your work using the assessment criteria

 

Demonstration of visual and technical skills

Have used drawing media, pastels oils, acrylics and collage

Observational skills and visual awareness in sketchbooks

Design and compositional skills evident in use of perspective and golden section

Quality of outcome

Lauren, Moonlight Apocalypse and Seated Figure have quality

Seated figure is an almost unconscious application of knowledge

The Blog is readable and interesting

Discernment

Conceptualisation of thought

Communication of ideas

 

Demonstration of Creativity

Moonlight Apocalypse is straight from my imagination no models no sketches

I am experimenting with The Ochre’s and The Rip Offs

Invention

Development of a personal voice

Context

Am reflecting on the significance of what I am doing with The Rip Offs and the Ochre’s

Have carried out extensive research using both primary and secondary sources

Am questioning the veracity of the secondary sources

 

While I have been doing much research I have not neglected the practical aspect of the course and experimented with lots of techniques that I think will form the basis for moving forward on the course.

The nine or ten collages in the Rip off series that began with the exercise on Matisse’s cut outs that are all on the blog, the series is continuing and it feels to me that this has somewhere else to go with more work.

There is a tonal sketch and some compositional sketches and three colour studies for a canal bridge that I painted for my brother, using the paint in different ways the one he chosen was a sort of Brabizon technique which I used for the finished piece.

The final composition is based around the golden section with the bridge dominant in the scene, as in Monet’s Japanese Bridge. It is after all the subject of the painting.

Figure 01 tonal compositional sketch for Granddad’s bridge Ink, charcoal and graphite A2 sugar paper

Figure 02 Colour Study 1 Impressionist style for Granddad’s bridge acrylic on 25 x 10 board

Figure 03 Colour Study 2 post impressionist style for Granddad’s bridge acrylic on 25 x 10 board

Figure 04 Colour Study 3 Brabizon style for Granddad’s bridge acrylic on 25 x 10 board

Figure 05 Granddad’s bridge oil on 45 x 40 canvas

 

There is also am almost complete acrylic grisaille of the Mona Lisa but it is getting a little tedious due to the small brushwork required. I work on it for about an hour a week so it will be a long time getting finished but she is beginning to get a sense of volume and form and she does have the beginnings of a smile.

Figure 06 Grisaille for La Giaconda acrylic on 35 x 45 board

There is a partially finished painting of the Horsemen of the Apocalypse which is something I got interested in while I was studying Drawing 2, I think it is influenced by the style of Delacroix and it is composed and modelled in my imagination.

Figure 07 Moonlight Apocalypse acrylic on 65 x 75 canvas

Also on the blog there is a completed a pastel study on the blog entitled Gendarme Raid that I completed working from a sketchbook study that has the potential to be a painting. I have begun to enjoy working in pastels more. I recently saw some of Paula Rego’s large pastels at la Musee D’Orangerie and enjoy the speed of working that this process allows.

In my figure drawing class I have been experimenting with Cubism this still has a way to go but the preliminary experiment is included on the blog as Seated Figure.

Lauren, a portrait of my daughter is still drying but I am posting the step by step photographs that I have taken so far to give an idea of the work

Figure 08 Initial pencil study 40 x 45

Figure 09 Initial block in acrylic 40 x 45

Figure 10 Adding tones in acrylic 40 x 45

Figure 11 Adding tones in acrylic 40 x 45

Figure 12 Completed acrylic grisaille 40 x 45

Figure 12 Dead colouring in oils 40 x 45

I know it was a lot to read but there were enough pictures at the end, I hope you like the picture of Aunty Loz even though it is not finished yet. Maybe by this time tomorrow the new baby will have arrived and if not we will just have to wait a little longer.

My love as always

Mickos xx

Bibliography

Benjamin, W. (2008.)The work of Art in the age of Mechanical Reproduction, London: Penguin

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dear Cleo 18 12 29

I went to the Tate Liverpool to see their current exhibition of Fernand Ledger: New Times, New Pleasures.

I was hoping to see some of his early work from before the First World War but the exhibition began with his work in 1917 and carried on chronologically for the rest of his life.

His machine inspired work was full of movement, movement seemed to fascinate Leger and this is borne out in the two film clips included in the exhibition, Ballet Mecanique and Girl with the Prefabricated Heart.

I was more taken by his later figure work. Something I noticed was that his figures never touched the edges of the frame, almost all had a boundary and a margin that separated the figures from the edge of the picture plane. Maybe the technical term for this is a vignette. I am not sure why Leger chose this technique but it does seem to make his figures more monumental and sculptural.

The paint is quite thick and impasto in his early work, which could be a leftover from his early impressionist training but in the late figure paintings the paint is thin and flat indicating that the experimentation had moved away from the canvas and was either not necessary or confined to the sketchbook.

It is quite a large exhibition almost, but not quite, as I have already said, a retrospective.

The companion exhibition was part of the News from Nowhere Project by Korean artists Moon Kyungwon and Jeon Joonho. The twisted steel sculptures reminded me of the Ground Zero Museum in New York and the link to the main exhibition was provided by the large screens with scenes from contemporary Liverpool these art films were, however, less hopeful than Leger’s.

The Exhibitions

Tate Liverpool. (2018) Fernand Leger: New Times, New Pleasures. At:  https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-liverpool/exhibition/fernand-leger-new-times-new-pleasures (Accessed 29/12/18)

Tate Liverpool. (2018) See Liverpool through the eyes of a man who has travelled through space and time to arrive in the city on the eve of the apocalypse. At: https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-liverpool/exhibition/moon-kyungwon-and-jeon-joonho-news-nowhere (Accessed 29/12/18)

Exhibition review

Searle A (2018) Fernand Leger: New Times, New pleasures Review- Humanity in a Machine age. At:  https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/nov/25/fernand-leger-new-times-new-pleasures-tate-liverpool-adrian-searle (Accessed 29/12/18)

Smart A (2018) Fernand Leger: The French artist whose abstract mechanical paintings were called Tubism. At: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/features/fernand-leger-artist-tate-liverpool-tubism-art-picasso-first-world-war-a8646451.html (Accessed 29/12/18)

 

Leger, F. (1947) The Girl with the Prefabricated Heart. At: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tOvnQ9Vqptw (Accessed 29/12/18)

Leger, F. (1924) Ballet Mecanique. At: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bMKiF2eb8ks

 

Dear Cleo 18 12 20

Dearest Cleo

Well your Birthday is over now I hope you liked your presents and if you didn’t, you could always write to Santa for some different ones, Christmas is very close now and I like you am always excited by the magical time.

This week I have been reading about Marc Chagall, much of his work is based on his childhood memories growing up in a Jewish town in Russia. For a modern painter his work is very figurative and his palette, were he slightly older, would have qualified him as a fauvist rather than an expressionist.

When you begin to look close, it is quite astonishing, how the modern art movements influenced individual artists. The movements were of quite short duration and an individual artist would live through or alongside many movements picking out the parts that he or she felt that were relevant and incorporating them into their own practice.

I suppose this comes from looking at the work of your contemporaries in books and magazines and of course looking at historical artwork. Today it is more difficult to do this because in the current era art is not so vibrant in inventing the completely different every few years and art itself is not the major topic of international interest that it was in the twentieth century, perhaps football, particularly televised football is the new art.

But back to Chagall, I don’t recall having seen an original Chagall but I am looking forward now to seeing  The Green Donkey at the Tate Modern in early January, so that I can look first hand at his brushwork and his palette.

From the image available on the internet the work is based on Chagall’s childhood memories, there is a definite air of Fiddler on the Roof about it Chagall of course being the major inspiration for that film. Like Kandinsky, Chagall was fascinated by the link between music and art and many of his works feature dancers and musicians.

There is a definite Fauvist influence on his colouring and though the composition does not appear to be based on the historical golden section there are curious coincidences that make the work appealing to the eye. Chagall’s use of line and colour flatten the picture plane making a pattern out of a figurative subject.

I will write more about it when I have actually seen it, until then.

My Love as always

 

Mickos xx

 

Bibliography

Books

Metzger,R, and Walther, I. F. (2000) Chagall Kohl: Taschen

Internet

https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/marc-chagall-881

https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/artist/marc-chagall

https://www.theartstory.org/artist-chagall-marc.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marc_Chagall

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-elusive-marc-chagall-95114921/

https://www.mbam.qc.ca/en/exhibitions/past/chagall/

https://www.tudeley.org/video.htm

 

Dear Cleo 18 12 08

Dear Cleo

It was lovely to catch up with you this morning, the next time we meet it will be your Birthday weekend, and I am really looking forward to it and I expect you are looking forward to it even more.

While I was in Paris, I went to see the Schiele exhibition at the Fondation Louis Vuitton. One of the nice things about going to new places is that you sometimes get to see some amazing things, the Fondation Louis Vitton to the west of Paris on the edge of the Bois de Boulogne is a marvellous piece of architecture. Designed by Frank Gehry, who also designed the Guggenheim in Bilbao, I am a builder and buildings as art never fail to impress me.

That was the free art show, in almost the whole of the basement of the Foundation was the paying Schiele exhibition. I never count but there was an awful lot of Schiele’s work on display. Schiele was perhaps one of the greatest draftsmen the world has known and most of the Schiele exhibitions you get to see are based around his works on paper. This exhibition, as well as the drawings included eleven oil paintings by Schiele, while Schiele’s drawings have a unique style his paintings are not entirely unique. The eleven paintings on view owe much to the secessionist movement and Schiele’s mentor Klimt.

Autumn Sun of 1914 is almost a premonition of the First World War with its Khaki’s browns and greens against a dull sky with a setting sun and a field of poppies evokes the image of the war before the war had actually begun. The architecture of The Bridge is reminiscent of Klimt’s exquisite pattern work, whilst the flattening of the picture space destroys the perspective. Lovers could be a Klimt except for the dullness of the palette and the warlike looking sky in the background. The vision of St Hubert could almost be a pre-Raphaelite painting except for its lack of highly detailed finish, the thin glazing of the paintwork is reminiscent of an unfinished Leonardo or a stained glass window. Krumau on the Vltava is a highly expressive landscape with flattened perspective, at a distance the impression of architecture disappears and the blocks of colour seem far ahead of their time.

The under painting, oil as watercolour wash style continues in Self Portrait with a Model (Fragment) with the work crying out for a second pass and some highlights. Portrait of Trude Engel was the only painting I saw that Schiele didn’t appear to have completed in a single sitting and worked on for some time, but Schiele has retained the washy under painting effect almost as if he was afraid to take the painting to a full blown finish. Trude Engle was so disappointed with the final work that she attacked it with a knife.

Self Portrait with Chinese lantern plant is again a work that could have been done in a single session but the handling of the paint is far heavier and opaque and his use of black in the coat could rival either Velasquez or Manet for bringing life to the colour. The two paintings The Procession and Mother and Death were grouped together, they were both painted around the same time 1911 in the early part of Schiele’s career and it is easy to see the Secessionist patterning here, the highlights, absent from the later paintings and the layering would indicate that these paintings were completed over more than a single session. I was particularly interested in the procession as it is of a group of people and could perhaps be a way of my own sketches escaping the sketchbook.

The final painting Danae from 1909 is the most Secessionist work of all and heavily influenced by Klimt’s Danae. This is the very early part of Schiele’s career he was a Secessionist who developed into an Expressionist.

There is an impatience about Schiele it seems he is satisfied when he has the pattern on the canvas, this is completely true of his drawings and also of the majority of his paintings, Freud would have viewed this easy achievement of gratification in a whole different light than I, once the problem is solved, it no longer holds the attention of the protagonist.

It is testament to the popularity of Klimt and Schiele that so much of their work is readily available on the internet and while this is a great platform for studying art you can’t beat looking at the work in real life.

I have been to several Schiele exhibitions all of which were dominated by the works on paper, the works on paper cross between drawings and paintings and they all have the wow factor. This exhibition was also dominated by the works on paper but by concentrating on the oil paintings on canvas I feel I have learned much more about Klimt, Schiele and the Secession. I can feel a trip to Vienna coming on.

I never learned to ice skate they didn’t have a rink near me when I was small but I will be there as a pretty vocal spectator because I have to deliver your present. See you next weekend.

My love as always

Mickos xx

Bibliography  

Exhibitions

Egon Schiele: Foundation Louis Vuitton. (2018)

Klimt/Schiele: Drawings from the Albertina Museum Vienna: Royal Academy (2018)

Life in Motion: Egon Schiele/ Francesca Woodman: Tate Liverpool (2018)

Egon Schiele: The Radical Nude: Courtauld (2015)

Books

Hore, R. Ed. (2018) Klimt Schiele. Drawings From the Albertina Museum, Vienna. London: Royal Academy of Arts.

Buchhart, D. Ed. (2018) Egon Schiele. Paris: Foundation Louis Vuitton.

Neret, G (2015) Gustav Klimt: The world in Female Form. Koln: Taschen.

Wolf, N. (2009) Symbolism. Koln: Taschen.

Steiner, R. (2017) Egon Schiele: The Miidnight Soul of the Artist. Koln: Taschen.

Virgo, P. &Wright, B. Ed. (2014) Egon Schiele: The Radical nude

Leopold, R. (2005) Egon Schiele: Landscapes. London: Prestel Publishing Ltd..

Kallir, J (2015) Egon Schiele: Drawings and Watercolours. London: Thames and Hudson.

Internet

(all accessed on 08/12 2012)

https://www.pubhist.com/w13866

https://www.egon-schiele.net/Portrait-Of-Trude-Engel.html

https://www.egon-schiele.net/Krumau-In-Moldavia-At-Kleinstadt-IV.html

https://www.egon-schiele.net/The-Bridge.html

https://www.egon-schiele.net/Pregnant-Woman-And-Death.html

https://www.egon-schiele.net/Procession.html

https://www.egon-schiele.net/Danae.html

https://www.egon-schiele.net/

https://www.leopoldmuseum.org/en/collection/highlights/148

https://www.meisterdrucke.uk/fine-art-prints/Egon-Schiele/164651/Self-portrait-with-model-(fragment);-Self-portrait-with-model-(fragment),-1913.html

https://ivanawingham.com/2017/07/10/lovers-unfinished-by-egon-schiele/

http://www.artnet.com/artists/egon-schiele/the-vision-of-st-hubert-a-xheZ0Gys-uom3bjI5GfTog2

https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1445107#/media/File:Gustav_Klimt_010.jpg

 

 

 

 

Dear Cleo 18 12 07

Dearest Cleo

Well it is almost the weekend and I am looking forward to seeing you again. I was a bit upset with myself, for assuming from the books I had read, that the Blue Rider was an all male affair.

Well every day is a school day, today I learned that The Blue Rider included two female artists, Gabrielle Munter and Marianne Von Werefkin. As promised Amazon delivered the book I ordered. It was a beautiful book, lavishly illustrated, with not too much writing so that it was quick to read. It contained many works by Kandinsky, Macke and Marc that I am now quite familiar with, but also some by Munter and Werefkin.

Gabriele Munter was a founder member of The Blue Rider, she was Kandinsky’s muse, companion and lover throughout his pre First World War career and they parted when Kandinsky returned to Russia in 1914. When I flicked through the book after it was delivered, I assumed her paintings were works by Kandinsky that I had not previously seen, but on reading the book I began to appreciate her work. Like many of the early twentieth century artists she dabbled in a number of isms over the course of her career but my favourite was Streetcar in Munich, the central streetcar occupies the focus of the golden section and the colours are pure magic.

Marianne Von Werefkin studied under the Russian Realist Painter Ilya Repin and again her works can be attributed to a number of early Twentieth Century Art Movements. She was a latecomer to The Blue Rider but for me her stand out work is Tragic mood, looking at the picture you can feel the woman’s need to be alone with her thoughts and feelings whilst her partner stares uncomprehendingly from beside their home.

I wasn’t able to find an internet version of Streetcar in Munich but I will show you the picture in the book when you come round.

My love as always

Mickos xx

Bibliography

Books

Kurster, U. (2016) Kandinsky Marc & Der Blaeu Reiter. Basle: Foundation Beyeler

Jansen, I. (2017) Gabriele Munter. London: Prestel Publishing

Internet research

All accessed 06 December 2018

https://www.theartstory.org/artist-von-werefkin-marianne.htm

http://www.gabriele-muenter.com/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriele_M%C3%BCnter

https://www.ft.com/content/46c43c44-84f1-11e8-9199-c2a4754b5a0e

http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/full.php?ID=146768

Dear Cleo 18 12 04

 

Dearest Cleo

It seems a long time since I saw you at the weekend, it probably seems longer to you as you are waiting for both your Birthday and Christmas. Don’t worry the will come round soon enough. I am carrying on with my studies and research and this week’s chosen artist is Franz Marc

Studying this course is a bit like going on the internet and dropping down the next link, but because it involves reading whole books, it is slower and you never get that far away from your original interest. This week I started researching Franz Marc and along the way I have discovered much about August Macke, Wassily Kandinsky, The Blue Rider and German Expressionist painting.

Franz Marc is the painter of abstract animals perhaps most famously the blue horses and the yellow cow. Marc and Macke (Shopping and Turkish cafe’s) collaborated and influenced each other from 1910 to 1914, when they were conscripted in the German army and died in the First World War, Macke in 1914 and Marc in 1916. Kandinsky, (Cossacks and Yellow Red and Blue)who is credited with painting the first truly abstract paintings, although I think myself that this accolade may belong to Hilma af Klint, lived to a ripe old age, dying in France of natural causes in 1944. That probably gets rid of the headlines except perhaps that Marc was the only artist whose work was removed from the Nazi’s Degenerate Art Exhibition at the behest of the German people. If you can get Nazi’s into a piece people sit up straight and pay attention.

German expressionist artists were deep thinkers about their art, the writings of Marc and Kandinsky during the period of the Blue Rider,1911 to 1916 have had profound influence on the direction of Modern art. When artists write about art they write from the heart, critics and philosophers pander to their audience.

I could bore you all night with their observations but I will select just two examples that to me in my studies seem very pertinent. Marc said “Whether you paint the Virgin Mary in Majesty or asparagus does not decide the quality of a picture or its value but it can make one hell of a difference” (Partsch p 76) An artist must chose to paint for himself or his audience representational commissions may pay the bills, but only the art from his soul can guarantee his place in history.

Kandinsky chose to make a distinction between the greater abstraction and the greater realism “The strong abstract sound of physical form does not necessarily demand the destruction of the representational. In the painting of Marc (The Bull) we can see that here, too, there are no general rules. The object can thus fully retain both inner and outer sound and its individual parts may be transformed into independently sounding abstract forms and thereby create a general abstract overall sound.” (Partsch p. 56)

I take this to mean that I can employ colour theory, composition and abstract shapes in a landscape commission, without producing a slavish copy of the photograph. Feel free to keep my work in your attic until after I am dead, just pay for the painting. One day you will be glad that I was the artist who produced a painting rather than a photorealist copy of your photograph.

Amazon has plans to deliver a book on The Blue Rider tomorrow so I may yet write further on this subject. Good luck with your play rehearsals, break a leg.

My Love as always

Mickos xx

 

Bibliography

Books

Partsch. S, (2016) Franz Marc: Pioneer of abstract painting Kohl: Taschen

Meseure, A. (2018) Macke. Kohl: Taschen

Duchting, H. (2015) Wassily Kandinsky: A Revolution in Painting. Kohl: Taschen

Internet research

All accessed 03 and 04 December 2018

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Marc

https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/artist/franz-marc

http://www.franzmarc.org/

https://www.moma.org/artists/3748

http://mentalfloss.com/article/501956/15-facts-about-franz-marcs-yellow-cow

https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/kandinsky-cossacks-n04948

https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/kandinsky-cossacks-n04948

http://www.wassily-kandinsky.org/Yellow-Red-Blue.jsp

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilma_af_Klint

https://www.augustmacke.org/Hat-Shop-Hutladen-1914.html

https://www.augustmacke.org/Turkish-Cafe-II-1914.html

https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/2761